CLEAPSS Supporting practical science and technology
CLEAPSS Chemistry
Detailed guidance on how to carry out specific chemistry practical activities so they work and are safe.

Note: Some practical procedures are yet to be published. For additional unpublished procedures, please refer to our legacy materials which can be found in the interim document PX000.

Chemistry Procedures
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Sulfuric(VI) acid does not exhibit the usual properties of an acid unless it is dissolved in water. In this activity, the concentrated acid acts as a dehydrating agent, removing the water of crystalli.. more

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Concentrated sulfuric(VI) acid acts as both a dehydrating and oxidising agent with organic material such as carbohydrates. The carbon produced by dehydration is then oxidised to carbon dioxide and car.. more

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Sulfuric(VI) acid does not exhibit the usual properties of an acid unless it is dissolved in water. In this activity, the concentrated acid acts as an oxidising agent. Copper is oxidised to copper(II).. more

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Concentrated sulfuric(VI) acid reacts with solid samples of Group 1 halides (chloride, bromide or iodide) to form hydrogen halide gases and other products. The activity illustrates the behaviour of co.. more

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Electroplating is an important industrial application of electrolysis and is studied in many pre-16 and post-16 courses. Electroplating processes often involve coating a metal object with another meta.. more

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This activity dramatically shows the effect of a catalyst, cobalt(II) ions, on a reaction. Other characteristic properties of transition metals (eg, coloured ions, different oxidation state) can be ob.. more

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Although both aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl functional group (-C=O), only aldehydes give a positive test (formation of an orange to brick-red precipitate of copper(I) oxide) with Fehling’.. more

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Although both aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl functional group (-C=O), only aldehydes (or reducing sugars) give a positive ‘silver mirror’ test result with Tollen’s reagent. This small-scal.. more

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The structures of alcohols influence their chemical reactivity. This small-scale activity provides a quick introduction to the effect of oxidising agents on primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. T.. more

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Halogenoalkanes contain polar covalent carbon-halogen bonds and undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions. This small-scale activity can be used to investigate the hydrolysis reaction of various hal.. more

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